Students Research (BS-Psychology)

Resilience, Post-traumatic Growth and Psychological Distress in Survivors of Suicide Bombing in Lahore

Researcher: Mohsin Ayub
Supervisor: Farzana Ashraf
Abstract

The present study aimed to explore the relationship among psychological distress, resilience and posttraumatic growth among the survivors of suicide bombing in Lahore. After reviewing the literature, it was hypothesized that resilience and post-traumatic growth are likely to associate negatively with psychological distress in survivors of suicide bombing in Lahore, Resilience and post-traumatic growth were also hypothesized to predict psychological distress. Furthermore, main as well as interactive influence of personal characteristics e.g., age, gender, education and nature of injury on resilience, post-traumatic growth and psychological distress was also examined. A cross sectional research design was used and correlational and regression models were used to test study assumptions. Purposive sampling techniques was used to collect sample of 113 (52 males, 61 females) adolescents and adults from different areas with age range of 16-65 years (M= 31.19,SD = 11.08). Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Brief Resiliency Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) along with demographic data were used to measures the study variables. Significant negative relationships were found among study variables. Regression analyses proved that resilience and posttraumatic growth are strong predictors of psychological distress among survivors of suicide bombing. In addition, significant interactive influence of personal characteristics on resilience, post-traumatic growth and psychological distress was observed. Study finding strongly highlight the need of counseling and management services for survivors of suicide bombing in Pakistan.
Keywords: Psychological distress, posttraumatic growth, resilience, suicide bombing.


Executive Functioning, Alexithymia and Anxiety Symptoms across Adolescence

Researcher: Sadia Jaffer
Supervisor: Farzana Ashraf
Abstract

Erikson (1959) postulated that adolescents’ developmental crisis consequence into different problematic outcomes and may lead adolescents to experience several other issues such as poor executive malfunction (Emerson, Mollet& Harrison, 2005), alexithymia (Larsen, Brand, Bermond, &Hijman, 2003) and anxiety that destroy the individual both internally and externally (Roger, 2014). The current study explored the role of executive functioning in the development of alexithymia, and anxiety in adolescents. It was hypothesized that executive functioning is negatively related and negative predictor of alexithymia and anxiety. Furthermore, significant differences in executive functioning, alexithymia and anxiety across early and middle adolescents and the genders were also tested. In this correlational study, 185 adolescents selected through simple random sampling technique from schools of Burewala City were administered Toronto Alexithymia scale (Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Hamilton, 1959) and Design Fluency Test and Color-Word Interference Test from Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). The statistical analysis of Pearson product moment correlation, simple regression analyses and MANOVA were applied for hypotheses testing. The results suggested that executive function is significantly negatively correlated with Alexithymia and Anxiety but not the predictor of alexithymia and anxiety. Further the results explains that there are significant gender differences in executive functioning, Alexithymia and anxiety across early and middle adolescents. The present study concluded that adolescent’s developmental crisis leads to different problems that affect the physical and psychological health of adolescents that demands proper management and suitable interventions.
Keywords: Alexithymia, Executive Functioning, Anxiety, Adolescents


Parenting Style, Grit and Resilience of Adolescent Bullies

Researcher: Mehreen Malik
Supervisor: Maryam Amjad
Abstract

This research is conducted to investigate the influence of parenting styles on resilience and grit of the adolescent bullies. A sample of 50 screened bullies aged 14-16years (M=38, F=12) from different schools of Lahore were selected for the study. Perceived Parenting Style Scale (Batool&Mirza, 2014), Resilience Scale for Adolescents (Saleem&Mehmood, 2014) and Short Grit Scale (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009); after translation in Urdu and eventually validated with English version; were used. The results revealed that that the orthodox, avoidant and controlling parents' children are more inclined to bullying behavior and have comparatively less resilience and grit in them than the children of supportive and compassionate parents. The study would help to educate and make the parents aware as how their parenting styles can add up to the behaviors of their children to learn coping towards stressors of life as well as how they can engrain determination and perseveration for their future goals. It would also help to implement useful management plan in schools for bullying behavior with the help of administration. Keywords: Parenting, grit, resilience, bullies


A Validation Study of Inferiority Complex Scale on Clinical Population

Researcher: Muniba Gul Durrani
Supervisor: Maryam Amjad
Abstract

The current study investigated the psychometric properties of the new Inferiority Complex Scale in relation to self-esteem and psychopathologies in clinical population. The sample study included 100 diagnosed patients of anxiety and depression (M=48, F=52) from different government hospitals of Lahore, age range 18-25. The new scale retained 21 items after a component factor analysis and significant Cronbach Alpha (α = .84). Self-esteem Scale (Zafar, Slaeem&Mahmood, 2012) and Urdu adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (Riaz, Kamal, & Butt, 2013) were used to determine the convergent and divergent validity of the Inferiority Complex Scale. The result indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between inferiority complex and psychopathology and negative correlation between inferiority complex and self-esteem. The scale would be helpful in eliciting core inferiority feelings causing low self-esteem and eventually different psychopathologies among both genders, especially with reference to current media campaign of highlighting ideal body image.
Keywords: inferiority complex, self-esteem, anxiety,


Personality Traits, Emotional Regulation, and Eating Behaviors among University Students

Researcher: AreejChaudhary
Supervisor: Zainab Raza
Abstract

The present study investigated the relationship of personality traits and emotional regulation and eating behaviors among university students.The objective of current study was to determine whether personality traits and emotional regulation has a significant impact on eating behaviors of university students and this present research design was correlational research design. To conduct the study sample of 200 students was approached through convenient sampling from different universities of Lahore, Pakistan. It was hypothesized that there will be a significant positive relationship between emotional regulation and eating behaviors and there will be a significant positive relationship between personality traits and eating behaviors. Ten item personality inventory (TIPI) scale ( Gosling S.D 2013), emotional regulation scale (Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (2003), Adult eating behavior questionnaire (AEBQ) scale (Beken B 2016) were used to evaluate whether personality traits and emotional regulation relates to eating behaviors in university students. Bivariate correlation was used to gain the results.Furthermore, the results demonstrated that personality traits and emotional regulationhave significant positive relationship in relation toeating behavior among university student. Implications of this study involve cultural changes in stereotypes and will be helpful in health related decisions. It is also revealed from the demographics of the study that most of the students in university are unmarried and females have more eating behaviors than males. Majority of the students have nuclear family system.
Keywords: Personality traits, Emotional regulation, eating behaviors.


Self-Compassion, Resilience, and Psychological Well-being in Transgender Community

Researcher: Mehru Nisa
Supervisor: Zainab Raza
Abstract

The present study investigates the significance of self-compassion and resilience with relation to psychological well-being of transgender people. Transgender people are very suppressed and discriminated at every level in Pakistani community. The objective of current study was to determine whether self-compassion and resilience has a significant impact on psychological well-being of transgender people as they face a lot of adversities throughout their lives. To conduct the study sample of 90 transgender people was approached through snowball sampling from Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan. It was hypothesized that there will be a significant relationship between self-compassion and psychological well-being and there will be a significant relationship between resilience and psychological well-being. It was also hypothesized that self-compassion and resilience significantly predicts psychological well-being. Self-compassion scale (Neff, 2003), State resilience checklist (Hiew, 2000) and Mental health continuum form (MHC-SF; Keyes et al., 2008) were used to evaluate whether self-compassion and resilience relates to psychological well-being and self-compassion and resilience significantly predicts psychological well-being. Bivariate Regression and Pearson product movement correlation were used to gain the results. Results concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between self-compassion and psychological well-being. Strong positive relationship between resilience and psychological well-being has also been found. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that self-compassion and resilience is significant predictor of psychological well-being of transgender. It is also revealed from the demographics of the study that most of transgender people are not educated and they opt begging and dancing as career because of lack of opportunities.
Keywords: Self-compassion, Resilience, Psychological Well-being


Academic Achievement, Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction in University Students

Researcher: Maria Liaqat
Supervisor: Shazia Gulzar
Abstract

The present study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, psychological distress and life satisfaction in university students. The present research design was correlational research design. It was hypothesized that there will be significant positive relationship between academic achievement and life satisfaction. And there will be significant negative relationship between psychological distress and life satisfaction. And there will significant gender differences in academic achievement, psychological distress and life satisfaction. This study also focused certain demographic variables they will have impact on academic achievement, psychological distress and life satisfaction. The sample of study included 200 participants both male and female students. In this research two scales were used, one is Satisfaction with Life Scale (ESWLS) by Diener (1985) to measures life satisfaction of students. And the second scale is DASS by Lovibond (1995) measures depression, anxiety, stress of students. Academic achievements measuring thought participants CGPA. Both descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used in this study. Results showed that the significant positive relationship between academic achievement and life satisfaction also significant negative relationship between psychological distress and life satisfaction in university students. And no gender difference between male and female on academic achievements, psychological distress and life satisfaction in university student. The results are discussed in the light of cultural context of Pakistan and existing literature.
Keywords: Life satisfaction, academic satisfaction, psychological distress


Humor Styles as a Predictor of Physical Health and Psychological Health in Early Adults

Researcher: Naima Gul
Supervisor: Shameem Fatima
Abstract

The objective of the research was to explore the effect of humor as the predictors of physical health and psychological health in university students, because university students face many problems that affect their physical health and the psychological health. Keeping the issues in concern the objective of this study was developed and it was hypothesized that humor styles would be significantly predicts physical health, humor styles would be significantly predicts stress, humor styles would be significantly predicts anxiety, and humor styles would be significantly predicts depression. A sample of 200 university students were selected through the random sampling technique from COMSATS University. Correlation analyses were conducted in order to access the objectives of the study. Humor styles were found to be positively correlated with psychological health and physical health of the university students. In addition demographic variables ere also found to be positively related with all the styles, psychological health and the physical health. Implications of the study were also discussed. Their problems need to be resolved which require different humor styles and less stressor. This will help the university students to live a healthy life so that they can play the role of a good student who contribute toward the development of society and economy.
Keywords: Humor, Humor styles, Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Physical health and Psychological health.


Cognitive Control and Decision Making among adults: The Role of Aging

Researcher: Manoor Khan
Supervisor: Shameem Fatima
Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the direct and indirect relationship between aging, cognitive control and decision making, and to assess whether age moderates the relationship between cognitive control and decision making styles. To conduct the study, a sample of 195 adults, ranging in age from 30-59 years, was selected from different institutions and organizations of the Lahore city. It was hypothesized that there would be significant relationships between age, cognitive control, and decision-making styles. It was also hypothesized that there would be significant relationship between age and decision-making styles in adults. Additionally, it was hypothesized that cognitive control would mediate the association between age and decision-making styles. Moreover, it was also hypothesized that age would moderate the relationship between cognitive control and decision-making styles. The convenient sampling technique was used to approach the participants. DKEFS Color Word Interference test, and Design Fluency Test (Delis, Kaplan, &Krammer, 2001), General Decision Making Style Inventory (Scott,& Bruce, 1995) were used to assess the level of cognitive control, and the styles of decision making respectively. Pearson product movement correlation and moderated mediation analyses were used to test study hypotheses. The Results showed that age and cognitive control were positively correlated with rational and spontaneous decision-making styles, while negatively correlated with dependent and avoidant decision-making styles. Findings from mediation analyses indicated that cognitive control as assessed from CWIT measure mediated the relationship between age and dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous decision-making styles, while cognitive control as assessed from DFT mediated the link of age with dependent and avoidant decision making styles. Finally, moderation analyses indicated that cognitive control was more strongly correlated with dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous decision making styles among older adults as compared to middle adults. Limitations, implications, and future directions of the current study were discussed.
Keywords: Decision Making, Cognitive Control, Aging,


Parental Practices as A Predictor Of Self-Regulation And Social Competence among Adolescents

Researcher: Tooba Kanwal
Supervisor: Shameem Fatima
Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess the direct and indirect relationships between parental practices (punishment and reward), self-regulation, and social competence among adolescents. To conduct the study, a sample of 194 adolescents, ranging in age from 12 to 17 years (M age =14.53, Sd = 1.04), were selected from different schools. It was hypothesized that parental punishment would be significantly negatively correlated with self-regulation and social competence; and parental reward would be significantly positively correlated with self-regulation and social competence. A secondary hypothesis was to assed whether self-regulation mediate the relationship between parental punishment and social competence; and whether self-regulation mediates the relationship between parental reward and social competence. The random sampling technique was used to approach the participants. The four subscales taken from Parent-Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 2000) namely symbolic punishment, object punishment, symbolic reward, and object reward, and social competence, Teen Survey (Child Trends for the Flourishing Children Project), and self-regulation scale (Schwarzer, Diehl & Schmitz, 1999) were used to assess parenting practices of punishment and reward, self-regulation and social competence respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and Mediation analysis using SPSS and Process software. Results showed that specific parenting practices were significantly correlated with self-regulation and social competence. Results from mediation analyses indicated that self-regulation mediated the relationship of mother physical reward and father symbolic punishment with social competence among adolescents. It is concluded that punishment and reward are important factors in adolescent psychological and social adjustment.
Keywords: Parental Practices, Reward, Punishment Self-Regulation, Social Competence.


Self-Esteem, Aggression and Life Satisfaction in University Students

Researcher: Rida Liaqat
Supervisor: Shazia Gulzar
Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between Self-Esteem, Aggression and Life Satisfaction. The objectives of the study were to determine the significant relationship between self-esteem, aggression and life satisfaction in university students also to evaluate the gender difference in terms of variables under study. The hypotheses were there will be significant relationship between self-esteem, aggression and life satisfaction. Secondly, there will be significant gender differences in terms of variables under study. Also there will be the significant impact of pertinent demographic variable (age, gender, social economic status, education) on the variables under study. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (TSWLS) (1985) was used to measure the satisfaction with life of university student. Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (1965) that measures worldwide self- value by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self in students was also used. Along with that Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992) was used too to see the aggression level in university students. The sample of the research was 200 participants both male and female students. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used. The results showed the significant relationship between self-esteem, aggression and life satisfaction in university students. There was gender difference between males and females in-terms of self-esteem, aggression and life satisfaction. However, the results of the study are discussed in the light of Pakistani cultural context.
Keywords: Self-esteem, Aggression, Life satisfaction, University Students


Religious Coping, Self-regulation, and Psychological Distress among Early Adults

Researcher: Nida Mahmood
Supervisor: Shameem Fatima
Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to investigate direct and indirect relationship between religious coping, self-regulation, and psychological distress among early adults. It was hypothesized that positive religious coping would positively predict self-regulation and negatively predict psychological distress (Hyp: 1A), and negative religious coping would negatively predict self-regulation and positively predict psychological distress (Hyp: 1B). A secondary hypothesis was formulated that self regulation would mediate the relationship between positive religious coping and psychological distress (Hyp: 2A), and self-regulation would mediate the relationship between negative religious coping and psychological distress (Hyp: 2B). Participants were selected through convenient sampling technique. There were 133 participants (Female=74 (55.6%), Male: N= 59 (44.4%) falling within the age range of 18 to 25 years (M=21.45 and SD=2.39). A demographics sheet, positive and negative religious coping subscales taken from Psychological Measures of Islamic religiousness, self-regulation scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were administered to assess participants use of negative or positive religious coping techniques, self-regulation, and psychological distress among participants. Data were analyzed through Pearson correlation and Mediation analysis. Results from correlation analysis illustrated that positive religious coping significantly positively predicted self-regulation and negatively predicted psychological distress. Self-regulation also negatively predicted psychological distress. Additionally, it was found that negative religious coping significantly negatively predicted self-regulation and positively predicted stress. Findings from mediation analyses indicated that self-regulation mediated the relations between positive coping and psychological distress; self-regulation mediated the relationships between negative coping and stress. It is concluded that religious coping mechanisms are important factors in psychological adjustment of Muslim adults.
Keywords: Religious Coping, Self-regulation, Psychological Distress